The time when a woman has her first menstruation.


The time when a woman ceases to menstruate for natural, age-related reasons.

Menstrual Cycle

The entire cycle of physical changes from the beginning of one menstruation to the beginning of the next. During this period, hormones produced by the ovaries cause the endometrium to shed and develop anew.

Menstruation (Menses)

The cyclic discharge of the lining of the endometrium (menstrual blood, cellular debris, and mucus) that occurs about two weeks after ovulation if the woman is not pregnant. (Also called menses or period).


A variety of techniques that can be performed in a laboratory under a microscope. Anembryologist manipulates egg and sperm to improve the chances of pregnancy. (See Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection, ICSI.)


Surgery performed on the genital tract using microscopic instruments under magnification.


Spontaneous loss of a viable embryo or fetus in the womb.


The size and shape of sperm.


The movement of sperm within the semen.

“I'm a new mom and a waitress. If it weren't for your pain gel I'd be balled up each evening as my husband…”

~S. Robbins